Technology and Strategic Surprise: Adapting to an Era of Open Innovation

By • on August 28, 2020

An article in the The US Army War College Quarterly noted that technological revolutions affecting military innovation and state power can be either open or closed. In the twentieth century, military technological innovation was mainly closed. By contrast, in the twenty-first century technological innovation is mainly open. Open innovation is driven by commercial processes, not by the military. Historical periods of open and closed technological innovation have different dynamics, and they require different strategic analyses, terms, and modes of practice to cope with their implications. Open technological periods encourage tinkerers. Dual use is replaced by multiuse to reflect a broader range of users developing and experimenting with emerging technologies.

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