only a small minority of brands applies open innovation across the luxury landscape. Frequently, luxury goods and services brands are insular and isolated from the best available external talent. They behave like command-and-control fortresses, protecting themselves from expired threats, while failing to address the real opportunities to serve clients through open innovation. Luxury Institute CEO Milton Pedraza stated “The use of open innovation projects will accelerate because they generate huge network effects in creativity and performance that insular employee-only efforts can never match. It’s not even a fair contest. The more types of open innovation techniques a company uses, the better its chances of thriving as a complex adaptive system in an unforgiving luxury landscape.”